In Search of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Dark matter is the most and unsolved puzzle in today’s Astrophysics, Cosmology, area Astronomy. Science has classified matter in two different states as visible matter (Baryonic) that we see around and invisible (dark) matter not seen to Human eyes. Researchers are in search of dark matter in this world elsewhere .
According to theories proposed, dark matter is non-luminous (not bright) material that is said to exist in space and that could take any of several forms including weakly interacting particles ( cold dark matter ) or high-energy randomly moving particles created soon after the Big Bang ( hot dark matter ).
In a simplest way dark matter is made up particles that do not absorb, reflect or emits light from it. Dark material is a material that cannot be seen my eyes. In Universe 5% ordinary matter (visible), 27% dark matter and 23% dark energy exists in Universe. Existence of dark matter is not being denied by researchers in detecting, experimenting on dark matter. Universe is balanced by ark matter even if it is not steady and moving including stars, planets and all things in Universe.
Dark matter does not interact via the electro-magnetic force. – Dark matter does not have any charges. Dark matter particles should move slowly, much more slowly than the speed of light. It has very less density. On the other hand visible matter is something that has mass and occupies space. All physical structures are made up of matter, and the state or process of matter is an easily observed property of matter. Strong, liquid, and gas are the three basic states of matter. The purpose of writing this article understands similarities and differences between visible and dark matter.
The matter was in existence before Big bang. It was covering entire Universe that is visible invisible for Human eyes, advance electronic sensors, telescope both optical and radio. In broad way it can be shown as in fig.1.Fig.2 shows concept of Multi Universe and Fig. 3 shows parallel Universe. Clearly, from above figs. All the matter was invisible. As big bang happened, suddenly there was beginning of time and space. Space started expanding with tremendous temperature.
It is because in a dark Universe density distribution of matter was not even. It was more (denser) at some places and was lesser at other places.
Fig.4 represents big bang event responsible for creation of Universe. Likewise there is more probability to happen at very far distance from our big bang point so as form multiverses. Same is the case with fig.3 a chances of forming parallel Universe.Fig.4 is representation of our Universe formation.
As per earlier discussion, matter is that part exists but cannot be detected by eyes, sensors and telescopes. Any matter that is luminous is visible matter and that non-luminous matter is dark matter. In case of visible matter researchers have detected tiniest particle known as ‘Higgs Boson’ particle in nano seconds time by ‘Large hydral collider’ experiment and claims it exists.
Further prediction for existence of chargino, gluino, a charge particle is also postulated to exist. An air indeed is made-up of matter. It is gaseous state of matter. This is an unseen (Invisible) neutral matter. It is odorless, test less and colour less in nature. Artificially any it can have odor, test and colour by mixing it with elements that has smell, different test and different colour.
As light is not reflected by this matter it cannot be detected.non responsible to electronic instruments, telescopes. It has very less density of the order of average estimated value is 2.2×10−27 kg/m3.So because of this lesser density of matter,space has tremendously spreader in the Universe to unknown limit today in dark universe. From Fig. 5 it is clear that as long as light is there Universe is visible. It is inside the dark Universe.
Properties of dark matter inside visible area and dark area of Universe are same. Next query is why galaxies are not expanding, comets are following there predefined paths, stars are not colliding with each other? The reason for this is dark matter is acting as outer and inner covering spaces at some empty positions among stars, galaxies, and gravitational attraction force among them(stars, galaxies) keeps positioning at their places as dark matter is neutral to electromagnetic force gravitational force, covering to visible matter Fig.6.
Clearly from Fig.6 all galaxies are covered by dark matter.
Sir Edwin Hubble while studying galaxies, he observed the red shift of galaxies was directly proportional to the distance of the galaxy from earth. This means that galaxies farther away from Earth were moving away faster. In other words, the universe must be expanding. It means that the speed of expansion of Universe has not slows down and galaxies due to their kinetic motion (energy) acquired during galaxy formation.
Only the force between dark energy (possess by virtue of kinetic motion) and motion acquired by galaxies during its formation balances each other so as to stop further speed of galaxy motion. When those forces balance each other, further speed of galaxy motion will be stop. That will decide the limit of our Universe and fate of Universe as open or close Universe.
Our nearest galaxy Andromeda Will approach to our Milky Way galaxy after four billion years from now and will collide (merge) with our large spiraled neighbor. Question is why it is approaching to us and not moving away with faster speed? Why it will collide as our milky way is also moving? An answer to this is speed difference and direction of motion and galaxy motion. Andromeda is moving southeast in the sky at less than 0.1 milliarc-seconds per year, corresponding to a speed relative to the sun of less than 200 km/s towards the south and towards the east as shown below..
It clearly indicates that motion of galaxy in any direction is not same but depends upon their formation. Galaxies may approach, may move away from each other. Likewise there may be several collision happened in Universe earlier also.
Finally, inference drawn from above article is that matter exists everywhere in the Universe. Only where light is there in a part of Universe .light gets illuminated (Reflected) from that matter and in the absence of light matter remains un- illuminated (not-reflected) that is referred to as dark matter. Properties for matter in both Universes are same.
Note: Images from article are modified from Google.com.
Reference:Contemplation on Universe before Big Bang. January 2006.Research gate.
Dr. A. P. Dhande is the author of this essay. He is a well-known author and Professor at the Pune Institute of Computer Technology. He has written many books about Universe Revisions, Quantum Physics, and Astronomy. You have published an excellent article about dark energy.